Using Dpl as deployment tool
Dpl (dee-pee-ell) is a deploy tool made for continuous deployment that's developed and used by Travis CI, but can also be used with GitLab CI.
We recommend to use Dpl, if you're deploying to any of these of these services: https://github.com/travis-ci/dpl#supported-providers.
To use Dpl you need at least Ruby 1.8.7 with ability to install gems.
The Dpl can be installed on any machine with:
gem install dpl
This allows you to test all commands from your shell, rather than having to test it on a CI server.
If you don't have Ruby installed you can do it on Debian-compatible Linux with:
apt-get update apt-get install ruby-dev
The Dpl provides support for vast number of services, including: Heroku, Cloud Foundry, AWS/S3, and more. To use it simply define provider and any additional parameters required by the provider.
For example if you want to use it to deploy your application to heroku, you need to specify
heroku as provider, specify
There's more and all possible parameters can be found here: https://github.com/travis-ci/dpl#heroku
staging: type: deploy - gem install dpl - dpl --provider=heroku --app=my-app-staging --api-key=$HEROKU_STAGING_API_KEY
In the above example we use Dpl to deploy
my-app-staging to Heroku server with api-key stored in
HEROKU_STAGING_API_KEY secure variable.
To use different provider take a look at long list of Supported Providers.
Using Dpl with Docker
When you use GitLab Runner you most likely configured it to use your server's shell commands. This means that all commands are run in context of local user (ie. gitlab_runner or gitlab_ci_multi_runner). It also means that most probably in your Docker container you don't have the Ruby runtime installed. You will have to install it:
staging: type: deploy - apt-get update -yq - apt-get install -y ruby-dev - gem install dpl - dpl --provider=heroku --app=my-app-staging --api-key=$HEROKU_STAGING_API_KEY only: - master
The first line
apt-get update -yq updates the list of available packages, where second
apt-get install -y ruby-dev install
Ruby runtime on system.
The above example is valid for all Debian-compatible systems.
Usage in staging and production
It's pretty common in developer workflow to have staging (development) and production environment.
If we consider above example: we would like to deploy
master branch to
all tags to
.gitlab-ci.yml for that setup would look like this:
staging: type: deploy - gem install dpl - dpl --provider=heroku --app=my-app-staging --api-key=$HEROKU_STAGING_API_KEY only: - master production: type: deploy - gem install dpl - dpl --provider=heroku --app=my-app-production --api-key=$HEROKU_PRODUCTION_API_KEY only: - tags
We created two deploy jobs that are executed on different events:
stagingis executed for all commits that were pushed to
productionis executed for all pushed tags.
We also use two secure variables:
HEROKU_STAGING_API_KEY- Heroku API key used to deploy staging app,
HEROKU_PRODUCTION_API_KEY- Heroku API key used to deploy production app.
Storing API keys
In GitLab CI 7.12 a new feature was introduced: Secure Variables.
Secure Variables can added by going to
Project > Variables > Add Variable.
This feature requires
gitlab-runner with version equal or greater than 0.4.0.
The variables that are defined in the project settings are sent along with the build script to the runner.
The secure variables are stored out of the repository. Never store secrets in your projects' .gitlab-ci.yml.
It is also important that secret's value is hidden in the build log.
You access added variable by prefixing it's name with
$ (on non-Windows runners) or
% (for Windows Batch runners):
$SECRET_VARIABLE- use it for non-Windows runners
%SECRET_VARIABLE%- use it for Windows Batch runners